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Культурология
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реферат
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6 стр.
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07.04.2010
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Текст работы

Kazakh YurtA YURTAIS transportable collapsible dwelling that came to us from ancient times.
It consists of wooden framework, covered with felt. The framework ("kerege") forms walls of the dwelling made of latticed wooden poles; "uyuk" - long wooden poles serve as a cover for the upper spherical portion of the yurt; "shanrak" is the top most open part of the yurt, serving as an outlet for the smoke raising from the hearth, for purposes of ventilation and scanty lighting of the yurt’s interior. Depending on the air temperature the yurt is covered with two if not more layers of felt. The outermost layer is coated with flat for it to be impenetrable for rain or snow.
The yurt’s area ranges from 6-7 m. to 30-40 m. Spherical form makes it an exceedingly heat-consuming dwelling. They would enter the yurt through folding carved doors made of pine or birch-tree. They were a sort of touchstone testifying to aesthetic taste, social status and well being of its master. In real fact, fretwork motifs reflected Kazakhstan’s flora and fauna.
Right in the center of the yurt one finds a hearth with a cauldron ("kazan") suspended there above. The place at the hearth is regarded as that of honor meant for particularly respectable, distinguished guests.
The main decoration of the yurt is no doubt carpets ("tekemets") made mostly of felt.
Besides the interior looks quite bright owing to a multitude of colorful carpet-strips and ribbons manufactured of wool (by filling), of felt (by in-laying), of such other materials by weaving, embroidery, wicker-work and all.
Every little corner in the yurt has a purpose of its own - a part for men, a respective portion of the area - for women, for clothes. Besides there is enough room for a "shop" where they repair harness,



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