Иностранные языки и языкознание
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long-distance calls for free. These "phone phreaks" were seen by some as cultural heroes —
free spirits striking a blow against the suits, the evil corporations seen as the enemies of spontaneity and creativity.
Once computer systems were connected by networks, "remote hacking was an attractive challenge," Internet pioneer Vinton Cerf recalls via e-mail. "Much of the motivation was like picking locks or scaling walls —
just to see if you could do it. Harm was not the objective, most of the time.""It was a big open playscape for these guys," says Katie Hafner, who has written books about the history of the Internet and about hackers' lives. "The net was built as a completely open community People would actually be offended if files were protected."
There were some early nods to security issues — the fledgling ARPANET, the precursor to today's Internet, required passwords. It was funded by the military, after all. But "the subtext was this was an open community because this was an experiment," Hafner says.
It was built by guys like Jon Postel, the Internet pioneer who died last year. Postel had a vision of an Internet that didn't need a center to survive, a network that could be governed by standards and consensus without ever putting anybody in charge. Utopian? Sure. Vulnerable? Uh-huh.
That culture rejected attempts to create complex, cumbersome computer operating systems that incorporated security from the ground up. Computer security expert Peter Neumann says, "Viruses exist only because of the shortsightedness of subsequent developers who almost completely ignored the security problems" that some designers had effectively solved.
The problem is that the Internet caught on in the biggest possible way. The anarchic, don't-tell-us-how-to-run-our-lives

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