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Иностранные языки и языкознание
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22.02.2010
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INTRODUCTION BSA Костян
INTRODUCTIONWe may have the great honour to be present at the decline of printing as such. The books as the mass pastime have been ousted from our lives for several decades already. Modern electronic mass media (radio, television) are ousting books more
and more; the bookshelves in people’ s homes are getting sparse. However, several hundreds years ago the invention of printing was the initial factor that at once changed all conditions of the intellectual life of Western Europe.
The present paper is an attempt at seeing connections between the invention of printing and one of the most significant events in the life of mediaeval Europe –
the Reformation. The fighting of the Catholic church against books and the creation of the powerful institution of censorship
will be viewed. There will also be an attempt to view how printing stimulated the growth of national conscience and the forming of literary language. Besides that, the development of political science in the 16
th century and the formation of the bases of the future middle class and the basic political parties will be touched upon.
PRINTING
Books
In Europe the books became cheaper and more widespread when the use of paper became more frequent, especially as a strong rise of intellectual life of society went together with this after the crusades and the development of universities. In the 13
th century there was a special post in the universities, the so-called
STATIONARII. These people urged students to copy books, took books on commission from the
Jewish usurers who did not have the right to sell books themselves and from leaving students; therefore the stationarii were the first booksellers in new Europe. In the



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