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Kazakhstan
Institute of Management Economics and Strategic Research

Topic:
USA – Soviet Union Relations before and during the
Cold War

economic diplomatic War oppression

From: Azhigaliyev Aibek

20073690

To: Gulnara Dadabayeva


The history of Russian-US relations is rooted in the late XVII century,
when independent American states did not exist. In 1698 Peter I met in London
with William Penn, founder of the British colony, which later became
Pennsylvania. It was the first bilateral political contacts. In the first half
of XVIII century begins active colonization of America Russian merchants. Many
Russian settlements were founded in the Aleutian Islands, mainland Alaska, in
what is now the Canadian provinces of Yukon and British Columbia and the U.S.
states of Washington, Oregon and California. Gradually the scattered Russian
settlement colony were issued legally, over the territory occupied by Russian
settlers proclaimed the sovereignty of the Russian Empire. Capital of Russian America
was the city New Archangel (now - Sitka). In 1775 the 13 British colonies
revolt against economic oppression by the British. George III turned to the
Russian Empress Catherine II with the request to assist British troops in
suppressing the uprising, to which was refused. July 4, 1776 in Philadelphia,
was proclaimed the independence of the colonies. Formally, Russia has not
recognized this act, however, supports the desire of the colonies to
independence. In 1780, at the height of the war for independence, Russia has
announced an armed neutrality, is the actual support for the colonies. In 1809,
Russia and the U.S. exchanged ambassadors, initiating diplomatic relations. The
first U.S. ambassador to Russia, John Quincy Adams became the first Russian
ambassador to the U.S. - Andrew Dashkov. In the XIX century, diplomatic
relations between the U.S. and Russia were friendly. Peak closer Petersburg and
Washington were 1860 .- Civil War in the U.S. and the Polish uprising of
1863-1864. Then Russia and the northern U.S. states had a common foe - Britain,
which supported both southerners and Polish rebels. In 1867 all Russian
possessions east of the Bering Strait had been sold for 7,2 million U.S.
dollars. Furthermore most of Alaska this includes the entire Aleutian
archipelago and some islands in the Pacific Ocean. However, in the middle of
the century, the government of Nicholas I drew American engineers in their
projects of modernization of the empire. For example, experts from the United
States played a crucial role in the construction of the railway between Moscow
and St. Petersburg and equipping of its rolling stock, implementation of the
first telegraph lines and the rearmament of the army after the Crimean War. However,
in the XIX century between Russia and the United States accumulated
contradictions. Nota Monroe in 1823 was awarded the first Russian ambassador -
in protest against the possible intervention of the Holy Alliance in Latin
America and the strengthening of the Russian settlements in California. In the
years 1849-1850. leader of the Hungarian revolution Layosch Kossuth visited the
United States, and found a sympathetic response in the American West. In 1850,
the U.S. Senate on the initiative of Senator Lewis Cass discussed the
"Resolution Cashier" on the need to judge the monarchs of Europe for
the suppression of the revolutions of 1848 (First of all, as stated in the
draft resolution - "the Russian Emperor."). It played an active
supporter of Sen. John Parker Hell. Here he writes about the American historian
Arthur Schlesinger in "Cycles of American History": "The future
historian, according to Hale, could start a chapter devoted to 1850, as
follows:" At the beginning of the year the U.S. Senate, the highest
legislative body of the world, assembled wise and generous people who have ever
lived or will live, pushing in aside trifling local matters relating to their
own territories, have formed a kind of tribunal and began to court over the
nations of the Earth, for causing most cruel acts of despotism. "Offer
Cash, Hale continued, is that" we have acted as judges angry! "We
must bring to justice the nations of the earth, they stand before us as
defendants, and we will make their sentences." Superior principle. But why
be limited to Austria? Hale expressed his hope that the future historian will
describe how the United States started" the court is not over any a
secondary power, whose trade is negligible and the sanctions which will cost a
low price, but first and foremost on the Russian empire, announcing her
verdict. "In the end, Kossuth defeated the Russian army." I do not
agree to judge Austria, until we are sentenced to some bigger criminals. I do
not want our actions to resemble fishing nets frequently to catch small fish,
but miss a major. "I want to judge the Russian tsar, said Hale, not only
for what he did to Hungary, but also" for what chtb he did long ago,
sending poor exiled to Siberian snow ... When we do this, we show that by
raising his angry voice against weaker powers, we do so not out of cowardice.
" "Resolution Cashier" was not accepted. But in 1880 Congress
passed a series of decisions condemning the policy of Alexander III in the
Jewish question. In 1880 the U.S. finally established in the Pacific Ocean. In
1886 at the initiative of President Grover Cleveland's Congress held hearings
on the subject of future U.S. policy in the Pacific Ocean. At the hearing, it
was decided that of all the Pacific countries, only the Russian Empire could
potentially threaten U.S. interests. In this regard, the U.S. did not support
the Russian-German-French ultimatum to Japan in 1895. In 1899 the U.S. declared
policy of "open door", maintaining the territorial integrity of
China, primarily - due to containment of Russian advance into Manchuria and
Korea. Since 1901 the administration of Theodore Roosevelt provided financial
and military-technical assistance to Japan in the preparation of the
Russian-Japanese war. In 1900 Russia and the United States played a decisive
role in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion in China. Regularly (every ten days) to
New York arriving passenger ships, Russian-American Line. In the First World
War, Russia and the United States entered the Allies. Turning point for
relations between the two countries began in 1917. After the Revolution in
Russia, the United States refused to recognize the Soviet government. In
1918-1920 years, American troops took part in a foreign intervention, while
supporting the White Army. U.S. has become one of the last states to recognize
the Soviet Union. In 1919 the U.S. was deployed against communist and socialist
movements - banning the left-wing organization, expelled from the country's
dangerous, according to authorities, the person. Diplomatic relations between
the Soviet Union and the United States have been set on Nov. 16, 1933. Among
other events of this period, important for bilateral relations can note the
participation of Americans in the rescue "Chelyuskin in 1934 (two U.S.
aircraft mechanics have been awarded the Order of Lenin for that), and Valery
Chkalov flight over the North Pole from Moscow to Vancouver in 1937. During the
Second World War, relations between the U.S. and the USSR were moderately good.
The German attack on June 22, 1941 The Soviet Union has caused among the
American people a wave of respect and sympathy for the Soviet Union, almost
single-handedly resisting fascist aggression. Solution Roosevelt in November
1941 the USSR had been circulated law the Lend-Lease Act, under which the
Soviet Union were supplied U.S. military equipment, property and food prices. But
the union treaty between the USSR and the U.S. (as between the USSR and the UK)
has been signed. USA and the USSR were allies on the basis of an international
instrument - the United Nations Declaration of January 1, 1942. Later on June
23, 1942 was signed by the Soviet-American agreement on deliveries of military
technologies. United States, referring to the text of the Atlantic Charter of
1941, refused to recognize the Baltics part of the Soviet Union. The U.S.
Congress also regularly raised the issue of religious freedoms in the Soviet
Union. Agreement between the members of the anti-Hitler coalition, made during
and after the war, is to create a bipolar world in which the union leadership
in the West opposed the U.S. unit of the socialist countries rallied around the
Soviet Union. At the end of World War II the USSR became a powerful superpower
whose influence extended from Western Europe to the Pacific Ocean.
Establishment of Eastern European states pro-Soviet communist regime led to a
sharp deterioration in relations between the USSR and the USA. American leaders
sought to prevent the spread of Soviet influence and leftist ideas (aided by
the victory of the Soviet Union in the war) further west, in Latin America,
Asia and Africa. In the U.S. started the anti-communist hysteria - the
so-called "witch hunt". Very soon, the struggle between two
ideologies, went beyond diplomatic relations and developed into a global
confrontation with the system now and then flashing armed conflicts around the
world - the Korean War, Vietnam War, many Arab-Israeli wars, the wars in Latin
America, the Middle East and Africa . An important factor in the relations of
the Soviet Union and the United States has become an arms race. Since August 1945
the United States considers itself a monopoly on the possession of nuclear
weapons and tried to use this trump card against the USSR. But in 1949 the
Soviet Union also got atomic, and in 1953 - a thermonuclear weapon, and then -
and the means of delivering these weapons to targets on the territory of his
potential opponent (ballistic missiles). Both countries have invested huge
funds in the defense industry, the total nuclear arsenal for decades has grown
so much that it would be enough to destroy the entire population of the planet
than a dozen times. Already in the early 1960's the United States and the
Soviet Union on the brink of nuclear war when the Soviet Union in response to
placement in Turkey of U.S. medium-range missiles placed its own nuclear missiles
in Cuba that led to the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Fortunately, thanks to
the political will of John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev, military conflict
was avoided. But besides the danger of nuclear war, arms race threat carried
the U.S. economy and the USSR. Permanent essentially meaningless, the increase
in the armed forces threatened the economic collapse on both sides. In this
situation, and signed several bilateral agreements that limit the accumulation
of nuclear weapons. In the 1970's. conducted negotiations on limiting strategic
arms, which resulted in the treaties were signed the SALT-I (1972), which
included the ABM Treaty and SALT-II (1979) to limit missile launchers. June 1,
1990 an agreement was signed between the USSR and the USA on the maritime
boundary (the Agreement on the lines of the Baker-Shevardnadze) under which the
U.S. withdrew part of the exclusive economic zone of the USSR and the area of
the continental shelf area of 46.3 thousand square kilometers in the open
central Bering Sea, as well as territorial waters in a small area in the Bering
Strait between the islands Ratmanova (Russia) and Kruzenstern. Acute political,
economic, ideological and ethnic crisis in the Soviet Union by the end of 1980,
led to the collapse of the state. Many conservative American politicians are
inclined to ascribe this regard; the United States win the Cold War. Anyway,
the disintegration of the USSR (and preceding the collapse of the socialist
system) is considered to be the end of the Cold War and the beginning of a new
relationship between.<</p>



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