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Иностранные языки и языкознание
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4 стр.
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23.07.2008
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The National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan
The Russian word gerb for «emblem» comes from the German word
Erbe (legacy) and Polish herb (emblem). It means a distinctive sign composed of different figures and objects, the main significance of which is the expression of the historic traditions of the owner. The most ancient emblem prototypes were the totemic images of animals –
the protectors of a tribe or a clan in the primeval society.
The immediate predecessors of the Emblem were the clan and family property signs – flags, borders, the marks of Slavs and tamgas
of Turks and Mongolians. Tamga
was a tribal emblem with which the stones at the frontiers of the tribal lands were marked, similar to the state emblem placed on the boundary posts nowadays (Olzhas Suleymenov). In the third century B.C. the Shumer states emblem already existed –
an eagle with a lion ’ s head. Some other emblems are well-known too, like the snake of Egypt or the eagle of Persia (later Rome ). The emblem of Byzantium later adopted by Russia was a double-headed eagle. The emblems of the cities, existing till today, appeared in the Middle Ages: the red lily of Florence , the winged lion of Venice ,
the boat of Paris and the cross and sword of London .
According to heraldry, the images of animals, birds and plants denoted certain qualities. For example: lion – force, courage and generosity; snake – wisdom; bull – fertility of soil; a crow – longevity; an oak –
strength and force; an olive tree – peace.
In most Moslem countries, where depicting live creatures was forbidded by religion, ornamental patterns were used for heraldic signs, as for instance, on the city emblem of Samarkand .
On the legendary emblem of Timur




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